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Recetas y consejos

Soja texturizada - ¿si o no?

January 10, 2018

 

Últimamente he visto que muchos de vosotros usáis la soja texturizada 🍝 (se disparó su consumo al entrar como novedad al Mercadona ;) ) y por ver que en la lista de los ingredientes aparece tal solo soja pensáis que es una elección saludable. Pues... NO lo es. Lo siento, sé que los seres humanos solemos buscar las informaciones que confirmen lo que creemos y a ignorar, atacar o simplemente rechazar la información contraria. 🙄 Es lo natural y es el tema bastante bien estudiado por psicólogos.👩‍🏫
(De hecho, el comportamiento así tiene su nombre: disonancia cognitiva. ¨Es un estado de ansiedad mental que se produce cuando aparecen evidencias de que una creencia, decisión o comportamientos propios son erróneos o incorrectos. Tenemos una predisposición a buscar datos y evidencias que sean compatibles y “confirmen” nuestras creencias¨). 🙄

👉 Hay varias razones porque la soja texturizada la pongo (casi) en la misma fila con otros productos procesados y NO LA RECOMIENDO. 👩‍🔬
Los 3 mayores son:
❌ el alto contenido de acrylamida (por lo mismo no recomiendo a todos los crackers, tortitas, tostadas, etc.) - una sustancia tóxica ☢️, potencialmente cancerígena (según Organización Mundial de la Salud) y dañadida al sistema nervioso y reproductor. Esta sustancia se forma en alimentos ricos en azúcares y aminoácidos durante su procesado a altas temperaturas (como p.ej. la fritura y el horneado, pero también la presión, la TEXTURIZACIÓN, la deshidratación, etc.).

❌ los antinutrienes de soja (para neutralizarlas podemos simplemente fermentar, remojar o germinar la soja. Al nivel industrial, al contrario – se aplican unos tratamientos bastante invasivos).

❌ la calidad del cultivo de soja hoy el día (contaminación, modificaciones genéticas, cultivo intensivo o forzado...).

🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱🤚🌱

🕵️‍ El tema de soja es bastante controversial y necesita ser mejor explicado 👩‍💼, pero para dejaros un corto resumen:

📌 Pasta miso o tempeh son los productos de soja que, por ser naturalmente fermentados, recomiendo. Y, por cierto, justo estos son los más consumidos en Asia. 🎎
📌 Edamame - lo recomiendo por ser el producto menos procesado de soja que existe. Pero obviamente, por su alto contenido de antinutrientes, no debería ser consumido a diario.🌱
📌 Tofu o yogures de soja – en moderación (máximo 1-2 veces a la semana), ya que tienen muy alto contenido de antinutrientes.
📌 Salsa de soja, leche de soja - uso muuuuy ocasional.
📌 Proteínas, isolatos, concentrado de soja, hamburguesas de soja, salchichas, fiambres etc. - NO las recomiendo en absoluto.

Bibliografía:
Acerca de los antinutrienes:

Rackis, Joseph, J., "Biological and Physiological Factors in Soybeans", Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 51:161A-170A, January 1974 - Rackis, Joseph J. et al., "The USDA trypsin inhibitor study", ibid.

Gallaher D, Schneeman B.O. Nutritonial and metabolic response to plant inhibitors of digestive enzymes. En: Friedman M. Nutritional and Toxicological Significance of Enzyme Inhibitors in Foods. 1ª de. USA: Plenum Press; 1986

Liener IE. Implications of antinutritional components in soybean foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1994;34(1):31-67.
Gargouri Y, Julien R., Pieroni G, Verger R., Sarda L. Studies on the inhibition of pancreatic and microbial lipases by soybean proteins. J. Lipid Res. 1984; 25: 1214-1221

Liener IE. Possible adverse effects of soybean anticarcinogens. J Nutr. 1995 Mar;125(3 Suppl):744S-750S.

Brandon DL, Bates AH, Friedman M. ELISA analysis of soybean trypsin inhibitors in processed foods. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 289:321-37.

Brandon DL, Friedman M. Immunoassays of soy proteins. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 23;50(22):6635-42. Review.

Gilani GS1, Cockell KA, Sepehr E. Effects of antinutritional factors on protein digestibility and amino acid availability in foods. J AOAC Int. 2005 May-Jun;88(3):967-87.

Rackis, J. J., " Biological and physiological factors in soybeans," Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 51: 161A-170A, January 1974.

Lepkovsky, S., "Antivitamins in Foods," Chapter 11 in Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods, Publication 1354: 98-104, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1966.

Tait, S., et al, "The availability of minerals in food, with particular reference to iron," Journal of Research in Society & Health, 103(2):74-7, April 1983.

Sandstrom, B., et al, "Effects of protein level and protein source in zinc absorption in humans," Journal of Nutrition, 119: 48-53, January 1989.

Liener, I. E., "Hemagglutinins in Foods," Chapter 6 in Toxicants Occurring Naturally in Foods, Publication 1354: 51-7, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, Washington, DC, 1966.

Novak WK, Haslberger AG. Substantial equivalence of antinutrients and inherent plant toxins in genetically modified novel foods. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000 Jun;38(6):473-83.

Dia VP, Gomez T, Vernaza G, Berhow M, Chang YK, Gonzalez de Mejía E. Bowman-Birk and Kunitz protease inhibitors among antinutrientes and bioactives modified by germination and hydrolisis in brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 133. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012; 60: 7886-7894

Monari, S., 1996. Fullfat soya handbook. American Soybean Association, Brussels. Belgium.

Lönnerdal B. Nutritional aspects of soy formula. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 1994 Sep;402:105-8.

Norton, G. 1991. Proteinase inhibitors. In: F.J.P. D’Mello, C.M. Duffus, and J.H. Duffus (Eds), Toxic Substances in Crop Plants. The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK, pp. 68-106.

Sotelo-López A, Hernández-Infante M, Artegaga-Cruz ME. Trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins in certain edible leguminosae.Arch Invest Med (Mex). 1978;9(1):1-14

Los procesos industriales aplicados:

van der Ven C, Matser AM, van den Berg RW. Inactivation of soybean trypsin inhibitors and lipoxygenase by high-pressure processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):1087-92.

Yuan S, Chang SK, Liu Z, Xu B., Elimination of trypsin inhibitor activity and beany flavor in soy milk by consecutive blanching and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7957-63. doi: 10.1021/jf801039h. Epub 2008 Aug

Kwok KC, Liang HH, Niranjan K. Optimizing conditions for thermal processes of soy milk. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 14;50(17):4834-8.

He Y, Schmidt MA, Erwin C, Guo J, Sun R, Pendarvis K, et al. Transgenic soybean production of bioactive human epidermal growth factor (EGF). PLoS One. 2016; 11 (6)

Yuan S1, Chang SK, Liu Z, Xu B. Elimination of trypsin inhibitor activity and beany flavor in soy milk by consecutive blanching and ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) processing.J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 10;56(17):7957-63. doi: 10.1021/jf801039h. Epub 2008 Aug 9.

Jiang S, Cai W, Xu B. Food Quality Improvement of Soy Milk made from Short-Time Germinated Soybeans. Foods. 2013; 2: 198-212.

Kong F1, Chang SK, Liu Z, Wilson LA.Changes of soybean quality during storage as related to soymilk and tofu making. J Food Sci. 2008 Apr;73(3):S134-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00652.x

Liener, I.E. and S. Tomlinson, 1981. Heat inactivation of soybean line lacking the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. J. Food Sci., 46:1354-1356.

Kendall, H.W. & Beachy, R & Eisner, T & Gould, Fred & Herdt, R & Raven, P.H. & Schell, J.S. & Swaminathan, M.S.. (1997). Bioengineering of crops: report of the World Bank Panel on transgenic crops.

Acerca de arylamida:

Žilić, S., Mogol, B. A., Akıllıoğlu, G., Serpen, A., Delić, N. and Gökmen, V. (2014), Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean. J. Sci. Food Agric., 94: 45–51. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6210


Dearfield KL, Abernathy CO, Ottley MS, Brantner JH, Hayes PF. Acrylamide: Its metabolism, developmental and reproductive effects, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Mutation Research 1988; 195(1):45–77.


Dearfield KL, Douglas GR, Ehling UH, et al. Acrylamide: A review of its genotoxicity and an assessment of heritable genetic risk. Mutation Research 1995; 330(1–2):71–99.


Çebi A. Acrylamide Intake, Its Effects on Tissue and Cancer. In: Gökmen V, editor. Acrylamide in Food. Analysis, Content and Potential Health Effects. London: Academic Press, 2016.
 

Gökmen V. Acrylamide in Food: Analysis, Content and Potential Health Effects CHAPTER. 10. Acrylamide in Soybean Products, Roasted Nuts, and Dried Fruits. Slađana Žilić Department of Food Technology and Biochemistry, Maize Research Institute, Belgrade, Serbia
 

Tareke E, Rydberg P, Karlsson P, Eriksson S, Tornqvist M. Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2002; 50(17):4998–5006.

Virk-Baker MK, Nagy TR, Barnes S, Groopman J. Dietary acrylamide and human cancer: a systematic review of literature. Nutrition and Cancer 2014;66(5):774-790.


Health implications of acrylamide in food : report of a joint FAO/WHO consultation, WHO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-27 June 2002

El Kim H, Lee SG, Rhie J. Dermal and neural toxicity caused by acrylamide exposure in two Korean grouting workers: a case report. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2017 Oct 9;29:50. doi: 10.1186/s40557-017-0207-7. eCollection 2017.

Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Bosetti C, Boyle P, Boffetta P. Exposure to acrylamide and human cancer--a review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(7):1487-1499.

Daniali G, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP. Effect of amino acids and frequency of reuse frying oils at different temperature on acrylamide formation in palm olein and soy bean oils via modeling system. Food Chem. 2018 Apr 15;245:1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.10.070. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Daniali G, Jinap S, Hajeb P, Sanny M, Tan CP. Acrylamide formation in vegetable oils and animal fats during heat treatment. Food Chem. 2016 Dec 1;212:244-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.174. Epub 2016 May 28.

Fuhr U, Boettcher MI, Kinzig-Schippers M, et al. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in humans after ingestion of a defined dose in a test meal to improve risk assessment for acrylamide carcinogenicity. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 2006; 15(2):266–271.

Lipworth L, Sonderman JS, Tarone RE, McLaughlin JK. Review of epidemiologic studies of dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention 2012; 21(4):375-386.

¿Por qué la soja nuecesita ser fermentada o germinada? (¿por qué recomiendo tempeh, miso, natto?):

Adeyemo, S.M. & Onilude, A.A.. (2013). Enzymatic Reduction of Anti-nutritional Factors in Fermenting Soybeans by Lactobacillus plantarum Isolates from Fermenting Cereals. Nigerian Food Journal. 31. 84-90. 10.1016/S0189-7241(15)30080-1.

Huang X, Cai W, Xu B. Kinetic changes of nutrients and antioxidant capacities of germinated soybean (Glycine max L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) with germination time. Food Chem. 2014 Jan 15;143:268-76. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.080. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Jiménez MJ, Elías LG, Bressani R, Navarrete DA, Gómez-Brenes R, Molina MR. [Biochemical and nutritional studies of germinated soybean seeds]. Arch Latinoam Nutr. 1985 Sep;35(3):480-90. Spanish.

Kim SL, Lee JE, Kwon YU, Kim WH, Jung GH, Kim DW, Lee CK, Lee YY, Kim MJ, Kim YH, Hwang TY, Chung IM. Introduction and nutritional evaluation of germinated soy germ. Food Chem. 2013 Jan 15;136(2):491-500. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.022. Epub 2012 Aug 24.

 


 

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